Stop ASF: Public and private partnering for success

Questions et Réponses




Questions pertaining to ASF testing and vaccines

Are antigen capture ELISA kits for ASF commercially available and readily accessible?


Richard French

Yes, there are a number of products. Examples include: PenCheck LFS (, Ingenasa ELISA (, ID Screen ASF (, ASFV Antigen Rapid Kit (ring These are all referenced and evaluated in the literature and there a number of others, either ELISA or LFS tests. You have to be aware that the sale or use in any country or territory is conditional on licensing or registration of the products.

What are the test(s) which have been validated in Canada and the Americas?




Pen side tests developed in Canada/US are both antigen based (PCR) and antibody (ELISA) based.


What can we learn from the development of vaccine for SARs COV 2 (COVID 19) and the trial from HIV? Is there a promising trial at list after the adoption of technology from COVID 19 vaccine?


Refer to Q&A from 21 June live session

Great to refer to biosecurity in place in France. But what about the vaccine for ASF?


Work on the vaccine is carried out by laboratories. For professionals in the French pig industry, their intervention is only possible on the biosecurity aspect. They are waiting for a vaccine to have an additional tool in case ASF enters French territory which has not been the case until now.


What is the status of vaccine development. Are there prospects for the development of ASF vaccines as quickly as was done for Covid-19?


Denis Kolbasov

No. The development of ASF vaccines as quickly as it was done for COVID-19 is not feasible for several reasons:

·       SARS-CoV-2 virus is much smaller then ASFV and requires only one already known protective antigen (Spike protein) for vaccine development. ASFV has a much larger genome than coronaviruses, and the identification of ASF antigens that induce a protective immune response is still under investigation.  Notwithstanding, GARA partners are making progress with the development of 1st generation modified live vaccine, some of which are currently under investigation and development with commercial partners in Europe and Asia.  Timeframe for regulatory approval of the first vaccine is still speculation at this time, but this is why GARA help our recent webinar and is engaging with IABS and regulatory authorities to identify international standards to ensure first-generation vaccines are pure, safe, potent, and efficacious.

·       The record of the webinar available here



Implementation of PPP/ ASF control measures at the level of production

How can the prevention and control of ASF be achieved in scavenging or extensive farming systems, and what are the areas in which PPP may be applied in these systems?  


Antoine Lury

Prevention and control can be achieved only through improved biosecurity/biosafety practices and participation in effective surveillance schemes, at all levels (from the farm to markets). To achieve that, many preliminary challenges should be addressed, and actions should be adapted to the great diversity of local contexts (see full PPT for more information on those aspects).


PPPs could be an opportunity to encourage and support this process, depending on the situation in the target countries/areas (nature and capacities of stakeholders, market structuration, etc.). Few examples:

·       Establishment of direct contracting schemes between private intermediaries/buyers (e.g. collectors/middle-men, commercial farmers, butchers, etc.) and smallholders (or famers’ groups/cooperatives) willing to invest/apply proper biosecurity schemes for their pigs => definition of technical specifications (in terms of biosecurity/biosafety) adapted to local contexts/capacities, establishment of fair contracting conditions, technical support, microcredit schemes and/or provision of inputs (e.g. disinfection material, etc.) if necessary, creation of local quality signs/labelling solutions (e.g. PGS), etc.;

·       Effective participation of private operators in existing active/passive surveillance schemes (in collaboration with local authorities and other local stakeholders, including CAHWs and farmers), both in terms of data collection/notification and public communication/awareness, ideally under a dedicated PPP framework with clear and transparent objectives/tasks;

·       Development/provision of biosafe services (in collaboration with and under the supervision of local authorities) for the transport, storage and marketing of pigs, including under local certification schemes;

·       Technical and/or financial support to local authorities and local stakeholders (CAHWs, farmers, cooperatives, etc.) in terms of restocking, contingency funds, training funds (e.g. for CAHWs), etc., either on a voluntary basis or under specific state taxes;



The rationale behind being that collaboration is essential in the face of such crisis:


1.       no one is fully protected (since biosecurity is never a 100% guarantee), and in the end everyone is impacted by market disruptions, price instability and higher market competition. Inversely, cooperation could bring new market opportunities and a better risk diversification, including in a long-term perspective;


2.       biosecurity can be effective only if applied in a holistic manner, e.g. if implemented at all levels of the value chain (production, but also processing, transportation, marketing) and if combining individual and collective actions (e.g. biosecurity measures at farm level should be complemented by biosecurity measures at village/district levels and proper active/passive surveillance systems);


Intensive and extensive systems can coexist, and should better cooperate if fair and transparent conditions are met;


Promoting a notion of “collective responsibility” (in terms of biosecurity and surveillance) should concern all local stakeholders, including private businesses/operators


How do you get to convince the small farmers to comply with quarantine rules if there are no incentives guaranteed for their pigs? Most small farmers farm with pigs as the only source of income, and they mostly would not wait until authorities arrive on the farm to destroy their pigs as this means loss of income to the farmer.


In the last two years, we have witnessed a devastating impact of ASF on the fragile eco system of pig farming in West Africa, among the many subsistence pig farmers especially among rural women who kept pig as an emergency savings (piggy bank) for their family to pay school fees or for emergency health care but lost their pigs to ASF. The government has shown lacklustre interest in pig farming (probably for religious reasons), the national media coverage also did not reflect the full destructive impact that ASF had on the rural communities in Nigeria.  There is an urgent need to train and educate thousands of farmers on how to prevent ASF in West Africa.  What can be done in regions where the disease is already endemic?  And how can NGO like Pristine partner with other international organisation to Stop ASF in pig farming? (Question from Adetola)


How can we change and influence the mindset of smallholder farmers to apply ASF prevention and control measures, given that pigs are an important source of their livelihoods and they are unlikely to comply with measures that can adversely affect their herds (e.g. depopulation)?


































Michel Dione


Response from Keith Sumption: @Adetola. The press can also help here - In East Africa there are inspiring human stories of biosecurity initiaitives by producers that make good press stories - if these are better known, it can encourage. How to get these better known and publicized?






For the question of involvement of NGOs, refer to live session on 21 June.























There should be compensation to farmers after depopulation either from the government or through a private sector linkage model. Other options would be to investigate “safe slaughter” of sick pig for community consumption given that ASF is not a zoonotic disease.


What could be the best 3 control measures to prevent or overcome ASF? Which is the best surveillance strategy in farms around an outbreak area?


Joris Coenen

Prevention: surveillance and coordination. If ASF occurs in wild boar, it is of paramount importance to find it at a very early stage. Not searching might be 'more convenient' but the outbreak will only become more difficult to overcome. Coordination: before and during an outbreak: many actor are involved. A crisis plan is a must, and during the outbreak, good coordination is very important
 Overcome ASF: endurance. When an outbreak occurs, people are motivated to act. After a number of cases, the attention for the issue fades, yet the actions cannot be stopped.
Surveillance in farms: what we call 'enhanced passive surveillance' (EPS) proved to be efficient and cost effective. ESP means that every sick animal must be tested for ASF, regardles of the symptoms, before any treatment can be started. Besides ESP we also had (and still have) an active surveillance (sampling) in farms located close to the area. Within the restricted zones, all domestic pigs were culled and farmers could not repopulate (against financial support) as long as the outbreak was not resolved.


Questions related to biosecurity

How can the risks of transmission of ASF from wild boars to domestic pigs be managed? How can biosecurity be implemented in such a scenario?



The EU strategic approach contains quite good elements to build a proper management and essential biosecurity elements

More can be found in GF-TADS Europe  repository

And specially the Handbook EN_Manual_ASFinwildboar_2019_Web.pdf (


How do we succeed in engaging farm workers to apply biosecurity for ASF?

How about controlling movement of pigs and pork products during festivities and social gatherings that result in a continuing chain of spread of ASF?

Michel Dione

The first step is to increase their knowledge (training) in biosecurity practices. The second step would be to create incentive for adoption. A markets based system approach to make their system efficient is promoted; if actors can make good business, they will be more likely to invest in biosecurity.


In one hand, the government should  make efforts to enforce movement control regulations; in another hand, movement control again need to be incentivized. Once cannot stop farmers and traders operating if they have no thing to replace the financial gap they face during outbreak. There is a need for an operational model market/private sector led that will self-regulate the system though investment.


Who manages, pays and maintains the wash stations for pig transporters? Are the trucks a property of the public or private sector?


The trucks are owned by the private sector. The washing stations too. All the work on biosafety compliance is carried out by the private sector


How about compensation for farmers with poor biosecurity that have to be closed down? Was there a cost-sharing mechanism with the government?


Martin Lemoine

As noted in the presentation, the need for improvement to biosecurity was identified very early on by New Hope and additional efforts and resources were allocated by the company to educate its partner smallholder farmers for mitigation strategies of ASF.


This is why New Hope embarked on the “pig flourishing” project at the height of the ASF outbreak in 2019, where New Hope provided comprehensive supporting services such as technology and financial services to small and medium-sized farmers to help them continue pig breeding. This helped prevent New Hope’s sales from decreasing sharply during the ASF outbreak, whilst also strengthening resilience of the small farmers.


The PR China government provided significant support to the pig industry through the crisis, with about CNY 52.1 billion (USD 7.4 billion) of subsidised loans allocated for pig farmers to help them cope with their working capital needs. New Hope was provided with CNY 113.2 million (USD 17.5 million) in subsidies by the government, which helped New Hope cope and support small holder farmers through initiatives like the “pig flourishing” project.


Outside of the PRC, other governments like the Philippine government are also seeing how they can support pig farmers, with a 50-percent insurance subsidy for commercial hog raisers currently under consideration.

Was there any kind of funding for small producers or Bacyards in order to improve their bioscurity in the border with Belgium?


There is no aid for small farms. Collective money (public and private) was used for the construction of fences and the fight against wild boars. It was not possible to finance the compliance of farms


From experience, should funding be provided to small producers/ backyard farmers to improve biosecurity (especially if adjacent to outbreak areas)?


Martin Lemoine















Michel Dione

As part of the ADB’s philosophy of investing to enable productions systems of all sizes, we do take the perspective that smallholder farmers should be provided with the necessary resources to provide them with the resilience to prevent adverse losses. Being the backbone of the supply chain, enabling these farmers to return to a sustainable and safe level of production is also key to support a supply chain breakdown.


For instance, companies like New Hope work with more than 1,900 farmers as part of a cooperative agreement - a number which has grown 54% year on year in 2019. Any disruption to their production would inevitably lead to a breakdown of their own business. As part of their efforts to support farmers, New Hope provided technical support and training to help farmers improve their resilience against ASF.


Such production models prove that small and large producers can exist side by side in efficient, profitable and bio-secure production systems.


Providing funding to small producers/ backyard farmers to improve biosecurity may not be sustainable if it is not link to a market-based value chain actor’s owned system. However if such funding is offered in the context of a risk based approach to fight hotspots of ASF temporarily, that should be fine. I would rather prefer that the public sector contributes in strengthening veterinary diagnostic and response system, and enhance disease surveillance by procuring enough lab supply and equipping regional labs.




Question related to wildlife

How to convince hunters to collaborate in the ASF management? only possible by compensation provided by their help ?



We have had several negotiation meetings. Very quickly we decided to collaborate and the professionals from the pig sector agreed to co-finance actions against wild boars carried out by hunters. The French State has also intervened on hunting rules through regulatory texts. There was a strong collaboration with the desire to prevent ASF from entering in the French territory.

How can ASF in wild boars be identified and controlled?



Yes it is very important to encourage hunters in the infected areas because if you don't do anything the disease is growing rapidly



How has the fence been built along Belgium border, is it through PPP and contribution from the industry?


Funding for the fences came mainly from the French public authorities. The professionals mainly contributed to finance the means to control the population of wild boars in the white zones.

Does Canada have a significant population of wild boars?

Tom Smylie

There are pockets of wild pigs in certain provinces.  They tend to be more prevalent in western Canada and rarer in Eastern Canada


What are the ecological and biodiversity impacts from the control of wild boar?

Joris Coenen

The disease killed 820 animals, out of 2114 carcasses that were found dead. Another 3021 wild boar hunted, 13 positive cases. On the total population in the province and rest of the country, these numbers are relative small. On the other hand, not allowing forestry work and tourism for 2 years, had a positive impact on wildlife in the area.


Questions on role of governments

This disease is having a devastating effect in West Africa especially in the rural area, and as we have seen with COVID, for all of us to be safe everyone need to be safe. How can ASF impact be minimised in rural  Africa realising that some of the government are reluctant to develop their swine industry?

Michel Dione

There is no choice than to work with grass-roots stakeholders such as farmers. Interventions should be community led. Communities should be empowered to understand the risk and implications. They should be organized to access inputs and markets. It is likely that if communities have financial power, they will invest in biosecurity.

The disease is so dynamic that any change can happen and in any direction at any time. While developed countries or régions are deploying great effort to control or prevent the spreading of the disease, including strengthening the private sector for effective public and private parnership, Africa region which the bedding of ASF, very few efforts are done by the government and the private sector is generaly so weak that PPP appears to be compromised right from the beginning. Thus do panelists suggest to buid up a strong private sector in the situation of subsahara African countries? What do pannelist suggest to build up a strong private partnership for succesful and effective PPP in the situation of subsahara African countries?













Richard French

Strengthening of PPP is very important.  The National Government has to understand that porc is a major protein which is necessary to feed the world so it is a question of food security also. It is not just the producers but every citizen who need to understand this concept of food security. Once understood, the governments can incentivize by bringing all partners together to discuss and develop strategies. Mind you it takes time to get there. One can also work with Intergovernmental organizations such as FAO and OIE to create momentum in the region.


For PPP in subsaharan Africa…. Look to all stake holders. Vaccine producers, feed companies, etc. They all have excellent resources and a common interest. Example, Boehringer has a biosecurity tool ASF COMBAT. Often these companies have free resources and vast technical support. With regard to NGOs and other partners in funding. Look at the value chain - the ecosystem and impact on all sectors, right doewn to the family.


Questions related to trade



How does CFIA plan to get the recognition of the compartments for your commercial partners ?

Tom Smylie

We will have to approach our trading partners and negotiate their recognition.  This will likely require the sharing of documentation as well as in country audits before trading partners will be confident in the controls in place provide an acceptable level of risk against the introduction of ASF into those compartments.


How does CFIA plan to get the recognition of the compartments for your commercial partners ?

Tom Smylie

We will have to approach our trading partners and negotiate their recognition.  This will likely require the sharing of documentation as well as in country audits before trading partners will be confident in the controls in place provide an acceptable level of risk against the introduction of ASF into those compartments.



Involvement of stakeholders/ value-chain in PPP

Early reporting at the farm level is highly dependent on being able to find a clearinghouse for payment of animals that will be slaughtered with the intention of stifling risk. How can PPP help you find the resources to meet this need? (Question from Ivan Espinosa)


Jason Yan

The agreement between government and private firms about the disposal of ‘possibly infected animals’ is really a key to successful control on farm level.  The agreement about the procedures to determine infected, contacted, and at-risk animals, to standardize truck compartment and disinfection procedures should be reached as quickly as possible, even before any positives are detected.   Centralized lab service and mortality handle facilities should be built in advance and with enough capacity. Sharing information about policy changes and new outbreaks is also critical when outbreaks have been reported.


How to draft a partnership contract for the fight against ASF, for example with hunters?



Suggest to review pre-recorded session presented by Torsten from CIC. 

PPP is vital in tackling ASF, especially along the value chain. To realize this, educating stakeholders along the value chain, and understanding each other's perceptions is key. In your view, how can we best approach this? (question from Lennar Powell)


Michel Dione

Education should be embedded in the business model as an important input to the system. The same way farmer access drugs, they should also access training. All should work in a business model private sector led.


In France, to put an end to small farms, has compensation been paid to these farmers?



There was no compensation for ending small farms. The French administration has issued administrative formal notices (injunctions to close the farm if it does not meet biosecurity standards). Public and collective money was used for measures to combat wild boars (fences + hunts)


How can we cultivate PPP engagements in small holder pig production value chains to achieve cooperation in ASF control?


Michel Dione

Michel: Smallholder pig keeping is a fragile system which rely on low inputs and has low output. ASF control measures including biosecurity requires investment which cost do not much the return farmers obtain from their investment. Limited uptake of the best-bets is mainly due to financial resource constraints of farmers to invest in it. Such constraints are further exacerbated by market inefficiencies in the value chain that limit farmers access to benefits from technology adoption, thereby disincentivizing uptake. Input and output market inefficiencies such as limited access to input markets that guarantee affordable veterinary services for pig farmers as well as unreliable access to profitable pork/pig markets, are documented in most of our study reports in Uganda. Given this situation, sustaining investment in ASF control remain a challenge. To get value chain engaged in a PPP model to control ASF,  such engagement should be private sector led.

For example, in the greater Masaka region (Uganda), for instance, the local government has been actively engaged in the promotion of pig production. Masaka municipality has offered land to the pig cooperative union for the construction of a centralized pig abattoir to improve meat quality and set up a disease surveillance system for ASF and other pig diseases, while ensuring proper management of waste. The partially completed abattoir is under use and it has been identified as an income generating stream for the district, under the management of the pig farmers association.

Sustainability of PPP is heavily dependent on private sector leadership owing to the direct benefits attributed to being part of an PPP.

How have private ESG or agro funding bodies like ETFs contributed to food resilience against ASF? Are there other examples from the industry?


Martin Lemoine

The main form of private investment to mitigate ASF typically comes from corporates seeking to safeguard their supply chain and business or from governments protecting the industry from a development and food security standpoint. From a private sector perspective some examples of these companies include New Hope and Riverstone Farms.


To date, we have not come across any particular funds in the private financial markets that seek in particular to contribute to the fight against ASF. This is mainly due to the ownerships structure of Protein businesses in Asia which tend to be privately owned, with only a smaller number of groups being listed on public exchanges in the region. However, there are funds that focus on improving the resilience of the food system, which would likely allocate capital to such opportunities if they were available and an example ETF would include:


·       The Rize Sustainable Future of Food UCITS ETF (FOOD) that invest into companies that are innovating across the food value chain to build a more sustainable and equitable food system.


In terms of Private Equity Funds one fund in particular to note which has been investing in sustainable PR China protein supply chain development wold be:

·       Proterra Investment Partners have made a significant investment into modernising the Pork supply chain with their investment into Riverstone Farms - 3 farms in Shandong Province in the PRC. With an experienced team of Veterinarians from the United States teamed up with local Chinese farmers, their production model has also proved to be resilient in the ASF crisis and an innovative model for enhanced biosecurity and disease mitigation strategies for smallholder and commercial groups to follow. 


Implementation of PPP at the regional/ international level

What are the main challenges that retard PPP - can they  theoretically be classified or categorised with the appropriate approaches for each class of challenges.?


Isabelle Dieuzy-Labaye

Lack of understanding, respect and trust between both sectors is the main barrier and most PPP will start with engaging dialogue with the other party through regular interactions and opening discussions on needs, benefits, resources, etc.


Are there any differences between PPP and private sector engagement?



Private sector engagement, as well as public sector engagement, is a pre-requisite for PPP. Partnering has its challenges, so engagement and motivation from both ends are indispensable to start, develop and sustain the partnership towards impact.


How can PPP with the private sectors be initiated? How can private sectors be incentivized to fully participate and invest in PPP arrangements?

Mario Eduardo Peña González

























Guillaume Roué

For initiating a PPP with the private sector it is necessary that the public sector involves the private sector since the beginning of the project, in order for the private sector to feel that they are part of the project and understand that the solution of the problem is also their responsibility.


For this kind of approach it is necessary that the public sector understands that the participation of the private sector is not for questioning their work and that it is important to have a different point of view about how to approach the risk. Likewise, it is important that the private sector participates in the construction of the strategy that addresses the problem and perhaps give them the responsibility of implementing some of solutions, such as an awareness program.


This allows them to understand the importance of each sanitary measure that will be applied and the consequences of not complying with it.


Only when the private sector feels that they are part of the solution and their technical opinions will be taken into account, will they support the funding and the necessary activities.


There are three main lessons that can be applied in other regions. First it is important that the veterinary services feels that the private sector only has the aim to co work with them and don’t make a judgement of their work. Second it is necessary that the veterinary services understand the importance of make external audits to all the activities of inspection and surveillance in airports, harbors and border post. And finally it is necessary that the private sector helps in the funding of the actions for inspections, surveillance, awareness program and in the event of an outbreak, all the control and eradication.





PPPs are needed at various levels. From the private sector perspective, very often we are organized in national or regional inter-professional associations. These are in turn connected to international associations, like the International Meat Secretariat, the International Dairy Federation, the International Poultry Council, International Egg Commission, International Feed Industry Federation, Health for Animals, etc.


Cooperation between public and private sectors is essential -the private sector will always be willing to participate if they are part of an efficient and transparent decision making process.


The OIE, with its extensive global network is well placed to reach many potential partners in the private sector. The OIE is therefore the central hub for PPPs.


ASF prevention and control programme is challenging as it is important TADS, especially spread by live or dead pigs, domestic or wild due to porous borders and also through pork products; Is there any avenues through OIE or FAO where countries can share real time information and strengthen cross border activities??


Sharing quality information on epidemiological relevant ASF event is critical for disease control purposes. The 182 OIE Members have the obligation to regularly report to OIE the occurrence of any ASF event. The notification could be done in the form of Immediate Notification, within 24 hours of the incursion of the disease or a significant change in the epidemiology of the disease or every 6 moths is the disease is consider endemic in the country. For further information please visit the OIE-WAHIS site Both FAO and OIE produce regular report that describe the ASF situation around the world.  In addition, FAO and the OIE under the GF-TADS have set the ASF Standing Group of experts  (SGE) in Europe, Asia and Americas precisely to enhance the coordination at regional level and share relevant epidemiological information and best disease control practices. We invite you to visit the ASF dedicated site in the GF-TADS for further information: You will find a direct link to the different SGE. Strengthen cross border activities is a core activity of the SGE.



Could you briefly describe the ASF public and private sector awareness programme in Canada?

Tom Smylie

CFIA has published material on their website urging producers to take precautions, how to recognize signs and elevating their biosecurity.  CFIA has also delivered a virtual seminar to veterinarians and producers on the economic impact of the disease, how to keep the disease out, recognizing clinical signs and some of the control measures.  We will also be delivering a course this fall which has been adapted from the EUFMD ASF course to well over 200 veterinarian both government and private.

The Canadian Pork Council has been very active in providing information to their members as well as providing posters and material at feed suppliers across Canada to try and reach backyard farms.




Question related to safety of pork meat and products

Is there any technology to inactivate ASFV in pork export consignments and render them safe?

Gregorio Torres & Denis Kolbasov

The OIE Terrestrial Code Chapter 15.1 provides science-based international standards to safe trade with pork even from infected countries. In particular, Article 15.1.5 provides recommendations for the importation of fresh meat of domestic and captive wild pigs from infected countries and Article 15.16 describes the risk mitigation measures for the importation of fresh meat of wild and feral pigs. Article 15.1.23 describes two internationally agreed procedures for the inactivation of ASFV in meat: heat treatment and dry cured pig meat. I invite you to read the chapter and in particular the article dedicated to meat and meat products. By implementing the international standards the safe trade with live animals and their products is feasible even if ASF is present in the country or zone. 


I guess the importation of ASF infected pork will be the most probable cause of introduction of ASF in Canada ? Do you implemented additional measures at import ?

Tom Smylie

We have found that the detector dogs have been the most effective method of detecting smuggled products.  Most of the products smuggled are for personal use and people unaware they are not allowed to bring them in.  The Canadian Border Service uses computer models to target specific flights and passengers.


Was it necessary to pass any national regulations to authorize the registration of personal luggage at airports to detect possible illegal entries of meat products?

Tom Smylie

Canada does not allow the entry of pork products from ASF affected countries unless specific mitigation measures have been put in place.  for example, canned pork or recognized free zones.

No.  The Canadian Border Service already has full authority to examine any luggage as well as refusal of entry into Canada.



Question related to simulation exercises

Is a great message to involve the private sector in the simulation exercises, taking into account that this opportunity allows the producers to have a better understanding of the sanitary measures, including the stamping out.




Indeed, it would be beneficial to include key stakeholder groups depending on the nature of the exercises. The OIE Guidelines for Simulation Exercises may be found here:




China and Asia, in general, conduct extensive research and studies on ASF in governments agencies and in private sector, I do not see any formal engagements in the GARA. Did I miss something?



Response from Dr Kolbasov: At this moment, two GARA Partners that have signed the GARA MOU represent the People's Republic of China: China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center (CAHEC) and  Harbin Veterinary Research Institute. The Vice-president of GARA Executive Committee is Prof Zhiliang Wang – Deputy director of CAHEC. GARA Partners also has ongoing research collaborations with ASF scientists in China and Southeast Asia.  Our biennial scientific meeting in China was postponed due to COVID but is being planned for 2023. CAHEC, as a GARA member and an OIE reference lab for ASF, also provided the plan for surveillance and the protocols for detection of ASFV variants to the OIE ASF reference laboratory network.







Other questions on epidemiology and control (unrelated to PPP)

Can an animal can still excrete ASF virus, if the animal survived the attack of ASF, and if yes for how long (question from Amitav Chakravarty)











Richard French

Mortality is usually 100% but a small number of pigs may survive. These animals are not considered to play an important role in the spread of ASF. More information is available in  Ståhl et al - Lack of evidence for long term carriers of African swine fever virus - a systematic review, Virus Research 272, 2019,197725.

But we need to still be careful, particularly if use of illegal vaccines based on live attenuated ASFV is not stopped, because it may lead to spread of that attenuated ASFV  while causing chronic disease in pigs.



There is no evidence of a long term carrier state. That is, healthy recovered animals that can transmit disease. There are chronically sick animals that can intermittently transmit (Virus Res . 2019 Oct 15;272:197725. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197725. Epub 2019 Aug 17.). Note: infected ticks in the environment can remain infected through generations of ticks for well over a year in the absence of pigs and pose a threat for re-emergence of disease after depopulation.


Could you briefly explain the surveillance program for ASF for early detection?












Richard French


The components to be included in an ASFV early detection surveillance system depend on the local situation. I therefore cannot tell you what it should be in your particular situation. We recommend that to always first conduct a risk assessment to map out the risk pathways for introduction and spread within your area. This should allow you to prioritise surveillance activities. But the early detection surveillance system component called ‘farmer reporting’ of mortality by farmers will always be key, i.e. they need to know what to look for, how to report and whether and when they will receive compensation in case of implementation of control measures such as culling.


Active vs passive surveillance is best. Target animals at processing facilities, and all animals with any clinical disease. All morbidities and mortalities on farms should be tested regardless of perceived cause.


In an enzootic situation where ASF has existed for a very long time, what are the appropriate control measures to put in place? (Question from Laura Egbe Besong)

Michel Dione

Push the vaccine development agenda; put biosecurity as law; enforce disease surveillance; rapid diagnostic testing;


For Paco: if you could please give the name of the example you give about Spain PPP for classical swine fever ? I would like to read more about this. grazie mille ! (from Myriam lOGEOT)


Agrupacion de Defensa Sanitaria (in ES) [Junta de Andalucía - Agrupaciones de Defensa Sanitaria Ganadera (ADSG) (] ; and Groupement du defense sanitaire du betail (in FR) []